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Can you please tell me whether or not this sentence is correct, and, if not, how can I reorganize it. Is it even possible to use a colon here, or should I just omit it?

"If the main subject is amplified by something else via structures like: with, as well as, in addition to, then you still have to leave the singular form"

Additionally, I want to clarify the usage of the listing structure preceded with a colon in the middle of the sentence. Can you even do that? Thanks in advance!

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I would forget about colons. What the sentence really needs are some quotation marks.

If the main subject is amplified by something else, via structures like "with", "as well as", "in addition to", then you still have to leave the singular form.

Of course if you wanted the whole sentence in quotes, you could keep those, but put the specified items in italics.

I would also change the word "leave" to "maintain". "Leave" is not strictly idiomatic in this context, unless you say "...you still have to leave it in the singular form". Otherwise the question arises "Leave what?" The "it" refers back to "the main subject".

I would also place the word "or" before "in addition to".

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Colons in the middle of a sentence are used when you want to announce, introduce, or direct attention to a list, a noun or noun phrase, a quotation, or an example/explanation. As a list of structures is given colon can not be used.

One way to put the sentence is

If the main subject is amplified by something else via structures such as, with, as well as, in addition to, then you still have to leave the singular form

If you want to place the colon, then the sentence should be like

If the main subject is amplified by something else via structures like:
with,
as well as,
in addition to,

then you still have to leave the singular form

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