1

Is anything wrong in this sentence?

The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field.

According to my book it should instead be:

The enemy, having been beaten at every point, fled from the field.

Why?

There is only one subject in this sentence, so there should only be one verb; that is, fled.

How can we use having been + the past participle?

What’s the difference between the two sentence structures?

7
  • 3
    Why do you think a subject can have only one corresponding verb?
    – nnnnnn
    Feb 8, 2020 at 6:02
  • 2
    The past participle beaten is here used like an adjective to describe the condition of the enemy. Feb 8, 2020 at 8:55
  • 3
    The words "beaten at every point" form a subordinate clause. The sentence would stand grammatically without them - the main verb being "fled". Using the verb composite "having been beaten..." would be perfectly alright - but it is almost entirely synonymous with "beaten...".
    – WS2
    Feb 8, 2020 at 8:56
  • 1
    It's a reduced form, according to one analysis, after be-deletion ('having been' is omitted). Or if you consider the expanded form to exist but to be 'The enemy, who had been beaten at every point, fled from the field,' after whiz-deletion. Both covered before, though the passive forms are harder to locate. Feb 8, 2020 at 15:18
  • 2
    Any book that tells you something a native speaker says is wrong is wrong. There is almost never only one correct way to say something (outside the artificial rules of a classroom). More likely there are fifty. Mar 9, 2020 at 17:35

2 Answers 2

1

principal/main clause- The enemy fled from the field.

subordinate/dependent clause- who had been beaten. (passive)

The enemy, who had been beaten at every point, fled from the field

We can leave out 'who had been'.

The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field.

We can use perfect participle.

The enemy, having been beaten at every point, fled from the field.

3
  • Mohammad, please select your required text and hit Ctrl+B if you need to embolden it, or use the markdown option (B) provided in the text editor. For more details, see this Help page.
    – Justin
    Mar 30, 2022 at 9:42
  • 1
    Thank you so much. Mar 30, 2022 at 13:42
  • This seems to at least reflect what I've already said in a comment. I didn't give an 'answer' as I couldn't find supporting references showing these equivalences. Apr 29, 2022 at 13:28
0

In the sentence "The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field", ...beaten at every point...is similar to "....having been beaten at every point..."

It is the passive form of 'having + 3rd form',

like "Having completed the work, he proceeded on leave", changing into "The work having been completed (by him), he proceeded on leave."

3

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.