My friend and I have been struggling to find one word for this trait!
Essentially it's someone who goes past their limits, thus experiencing intense burnout and potential consequences afterwards. They may or may not be aware of their existing limits, but they nevertheless push past them, perhaps in the heat of the moment.
As an example, take the person who is experiencing intense burnout because they partied too hard for their body to handle, so they're needing to take the next day to recharge and rejuvenate.
I know words like rash exist, but they seem too broad for this phenomenon.