Let's just consider the container where we throw our garbage.
In the Continental U.S., the two most common generic terms for these containers are trash can and garbage can. If you don't want to specify, these will always be understood for what they are: a place to throw your garbage.
Whether you will hear garbage or trash, is a regional and age-related matter.(ref 1)
Garbage can is most likely to be heard in Southwestern New England (All of New York state and Connecticut), New Jersey, parts of Pennsylvania, Michigan and Illinois, and then all Northern States from Wisconsin to Oregon as well as parts of Utah and Nevada.
In all other parts of the U.S., including all Southern States, most people will say trash can.
In addition, according to Josh Katz¹
Since the 1950s, trash can has become increasingly common in American speech. Two in three people born in the 1990s would say trash can over garbage can.
As for the several pictures shown by the OP, 1,2 and 3 are trash cans, Number 4 can be found in supermarkets and retail stores under the name of roller bins
Number 5 is a trash cart.
Different models abound so it's not always easy to tell 4 from 5.
In Britain, it's a completely different matter and dustbin is one of the generic terms.
- Katz, Josh. Speaking American.