From a comment under the question:
Although I used a rhetorical question in my example, I did not mean to limit the scope of the answers to only include rhetorical questions.
If you are thinking in terms of one person trying to lead another person into reaching some kind of understanding through critical analysis, and doing so by asking questions that invite reflection, then you are talking about the Socratic method.
The Socratic method (also known as method of Elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate), is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions. It is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
The Socratic method is a method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.