A few years ago, I watched a video about learning through intuitive leaps by learning simple rules first.
The part I remember was talking about Mario Galaxy. When Mario entered a new land, he would be presented with a very simple puzzle to continue forward. As an unreal example, the first puzzle showed that jumping on a certain box would make some squares on a checkerboard solid and others ghosted. So you jump on the box to make a path across. The next puzzle took it a step further; there are multiple boxes and each one worked specific squares so you learned which boxes worked what squares. Next puzzle, you would have to turn on certain squares and turn off others. Then the final puzzle it added a 3rd dimension; not only a flat checker board, but some squares became walls you needed to turn off to pass through.
All of this is done by learning simple rules first and then applying them to increasingly harder puzzles.
Other examples of this concept would be "The Witness" and "Lemmings" video games.
In the video I saw, this concept had a clear, single word name. But I cannot remember that name. So I'm hoping that someone here knows that concept.
It is entirely possible that, since this was talking about Mario and its design, the word wasn't English. However I'm fairly certain it is.