The Islamic tradition shows the _____ exclusion of women from scientific field.

I mean to say that there has been almost no woman in that tradition in the field of science. What adjective should I use for "exclusion"? My own suggestions are "vast", "wide", and "extended". What would be an idiomatic adjective for exclusion in that context?

  • I would suggest 'absolute' to be the only option. Anything less is unnecessary, conceptually, since 'exclusion' already excludes to a very high degree.
    – Nigel J
    Nov 25, 2019 at 20:02
  • How about thorough? Disagreeing with @NigelJ, I think exclusion could be applied to a mild bias. Nov 26, 2019 at 3:16
  • @NigelJ It can be "wide exclusion" but yet not "absolute exclusion".
    – Sasan
    Nov 26, 2019 at 13:31
  • 1
    the widespread exclusion: a term used often in writing.
    – Lambie
    Nov 29, 2019 at 13:33

5 Answers 5


The title jumps out at one here:

The Making of Modern Science
Science, Technology, Medicine and Modernity: 1789 to 1914

By David Knight

"But in general the widespread exclusion of women from science was no accident: it was man's work."

This refers to the West in earlier times (until World War I) but would apply today to the "Islamic tradition" which still lags behind...



A Google NGram search for *_ADJ exclusion of shows that total and complete are the most popular options, though they might be too strict for this case: they suggest a 100% exclusion. My choice for the 99% version would be almost complete.

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  • Spot on. And thank you for reducing my scepticism of this method of gauging the currency of language. I had thought that the lack of control over context would tend to make the findings unreliable. But I see they have a place, if approached with due caution. Thank you
    – Tuffy
    Nov 25, 2019 at 17:34
  • Sorry, but wrong context.
    – Lambie
    Nov 29, 2019 at 13:33

The Islamic tradition shows the pervasive exclusion of women from scientific fields.

Also, you might consider promotes or encourages instead of "shows".


Some adjectives express degree (total, complete), whereas others express effort and intent—rigid, systematic, rigorous,

But check your sources. See e.g., https://science.sciencemag.org/content/290/5489/55.


You may word it more strongly with the term “prohibit”.

Prohibit [ proh-hib-it ]

\verb (used with object)

1) to forbid (an action, activity, etc.) by authority or law: Smoking is prohibited here. 

2) to forbid the action of (a person).

3) to prevent; hinder.

“The... tradition prohibits women from working in the scientific field.”

“The... tradition shows the prohibition of women from scientific fields”

  • That is simply not true.
    – Lambie
    Nov 29, 2019 at 13:46

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