Is there a term for the country that owns or rules a colony from overseas?
Quebec's ____ was France.
After the French and Indian War, Quebec's ____ was Britain.
Spain was a major _____ and it colonized many countries throughout the world.
The word "colonizer" emphasizes the colonizing aspect more than the ruling aspect, so it does not seem to fit always, such as in the second sentence. I need to emphasize the control over politics, not the act of settling.