The term Political correctness is innocent enough. According to Wikipedia:
Political correctness is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.
There's nothing wrong with being cognizant of peoples' sensitivities and understanding how your words may be interpreted by others.
But political correctness also has a darker and much more sinister meaning. In fact, the term itself is a euphemism for the kind of speech that could get you imprisoned or killed in certain countries and at certain times in history. In this context, political correctness describes a strict adherence to an ideological orthodoxy, and is used as a cudgel to castigate others whose opinions are merely different from your own (or what I like to refer to as the crime of "Heresy against Doctrine").
Rather than being a tool for civil discourse, it becomes a weapon of war (metaphorically speaking). This definition of "politically (in)correct" seems to be a watered-down phrase that does a disservice to what is actually going on.
Is there a specific term that is more appropriate for this usage?
"In our current state of radical polarization, [weaponized political correctness] has made rational, adult conversations about important sensitive topics nearly impossible to have."
The only words I can think of are Rhetoric (too generic), and newspeak (which is a pop culture reference not really in the common lexicon.)