One quite often sees the phrase 'Swiss made', so one assumes the following are also idiomatic: 'French made', 'Italian made', 'German made'....

But what is this construction? Simply an adjective used as adverb?

Like "perfectly done"?

  • Your question is not grammatical. Do you mean whose theory? You cannot say what’s theory as a contraction and it is very confusing as a possessive. – tchrist Sep 11 at 5:08
  • What adverb? Can you cite some examples? – Kris Sep 11 at 11:13
  • It's adj.+past-participle. HTH. – Kris Sep 11 at 12:16
  • @Kris - if you care to understand this question go back to the original version, which is ungrammatical but clear enough. – user067531 Sep 11 at 12:17
  • Your question contradicts itself. You know the participle "made" is an adjective, so what would be the adverb would be the word that modifies "made," so in this case, "French," etc. But that's not what's going on here. Rather, what's happening is a compound adjective is being formed out of a noun (e.g., French) and a participle (i.e., "made"), thus conveying who made the noun the compound adjective describes. The participle is derived from the past-tense of a verb and the noun serves as its would-be subject. Compound adjectives like this are typically hyphenated (i.e., "Swiss-made"). – Benjamin Harman Sep 11 at 16:29

It's a compound adjective (not an adverb). There is a huge class of these expressions with the format noun plus past participle, such as "wind-powered", "sun-dried", "middle-aged", "German-made", "strawberry-flavoured"...

Often you use a hyphen in these expressions but it's not essential. The APA style guide says to only use a hyphen to avoid ambiguity or if the compound adjective is used before the noun it modifies, so "client-centred counselling" but "the counselling was client centred".


It means that it was manufactured in that country:


produced in the stated way or place:

  • On the bottom of the watch it said "Swiss-made".

(Cambridge Dictionary)


Made in Switzerland/France/Italy etc.

From a marketing perspective made in has become an important distinctive mark for products that are often associated with the country of origin, like watches from Switzerland. For instance:

Made in Italy is a merchandise mark indicating that a product is all planned, manufactured and packed in Italy, especially concerning the design, fashion, food, manufacturing, craftsmanship, and engineering industries.

  • Actually it doesn’t mean it was manufactured in that country. It could be made “in the Swiss way.” This may be a hedge—it may be that it’s neither made in Switzerland nor by the Swiss. – Xanne Sep 11 at 5:07
  • 1
    @Xanne - I don’t think so, in Europe, at least, you can use the “made in” only if a percentage (like 60/70 percent) of the product was manufactured in what is considered the country of origin or it would be illegal. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_of_origin – user067531 Sep 11 at 5:14
  • Well, Brussels has its regs. But it doesn't say “Made in Switzerland.” It says “Swiss-made.” – Xanne Sep 11 at 5:18
  • @Xanne - the question is not only about Made in Swiss (by the way they tend to conform to European rules in that respect) but the use of -made in the sense explained above. I guess you don't live in Europe. – user067531 Sep 11 at 5:20
  • See en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_made. – Xanne Sep 11 at 5:41

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