I tried looking for the word "chromologically", but didn't find any evidence to its existence.
Further answers about sorting not by wave length, but by other factors, such as saturation, or brightness, are also welcome.
Since there any many ways to order color, there’s no specific name for “sorting by color”.
Sometimes, you will say things are in “rainbow order”, which is the sorted band of sunlight colors, by wavelength, as passing through a prism. This is only a subset of possible colors.
See also: How to sort colors properly?
You can’t sort colors. Because the human eye has three distinct color sensors (red, green, and blue), color is fundamentally a three-dimensional quantity, and there is no linear ordering that brings together “similar” colors. If you sort first by the amount of red, for example, then you may bring together wildly different hues and brightnesses. If you sort by hue, then you bring together wildly different degrees of saturation and brightness, and so on. There’s just no way to do it.