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There are people out there who try to predict future outcomes for certain areas like crops, events, etc... It's all logic-based and determined by their perception of previous years data. No clairvoyance or prophesied type thing at all... I'm trying to come up with the term that they used to describe that type of person, but for the life of me I cannot remember what it is.... if I'm not sailing mistaken, I think I have seen it centered mostly around stock markets.

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    The Old Farmer's Almanac is the book published with this information. There's even a website.
    – user150753
    Aug 27 '19 at 7:14
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    They’re forecasters.
    – Xanne
    Aug 27 '19 at 8:23
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    you have to be clearer about what you are asking. do these people actually predict (as in the title) or do the "try to predict" (as written in the explanation, be it with magic, a hunch, or any kind of technology)? The two are not the same at all. Please edit the title of your question to reflect the content underneath it.
    – thymaro
    Aug 27 '19 at 17:41
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    @thymaro Your comment seems to imply that you think "predict" alone means that the prediction is correct. I don't agree with that at all. (Perhaps I am misunderstanding your point.)
    – Dave Costa
    Aug 27 '19 at 21:31
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    @DaveCosta you're not. It seems "predict" is diluted compared to "vorhersagen" in German. I thought they were exact translations, but their meaning is shifted somewhat. "vorhersagen" is a term rooted in fiction and mythology, as no human is able to actually say with 100% certainty what will be in the future. Even so, one term for "weather forecast" is still "Wettervorhersage", but in science, we agree that it shouldn't be used in that way.
    – thymaro
    Aug 27 '19 at 21:56
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Some suggestions:

  • Forecaster – someone who forecasts. (mentioned by Xanne in comment)

    • to predict (a future condition or occurrence); calculate in advance: to forecast a heavy snowfall; to forecast lower interest rates.
    • to conjecture beforehand; make a prediction.
  • Speculator

    • a person who is engaged in commercial or financial speculation.

Others to consider:

  • Pundit – Used to refer to political commentators who often attempt to forecast election results. (mentioned by Weather Vane in a now-gone comment)

    • a person who makes comments or judgments, especially in an authoritative manner; critic or commentator.
  • Pollster – The people who gather data used to attempt to predict election outcomes.

    • a person whose occupation is the taking of public-opinion polls.

Some more:

Words that describe the basis of predictions, not the people who make them.

  • Predictor, suggested by Jon Watte
  • Futures (investopedia) – Doesn't describe the person, but the underlying trade instrument.

    • Futures are financial contracts obligating the buyer to purchase an asset or the seller to sell an asset and have a predetermined future date and price.
    • A futures contract allows an investor to speculate on the direction of a security, commodity, or a financial instrument.
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  • Didn't notice this is already in comments before answering...
    – xiota
    Aug 27 '19 at 9:09
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    Comments don’t preclude an answer, so that’s fine.
    – Xanne
    Aug 27 '19 at 9:17
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A term I particularly like for this is prognosticator.

prognosticate

prog·​nos·​ti·​cate | \ präg-ˈnä-stə-ˌkāt \

1 : to foretell from signs or symptoms : PREDICT

2 : to give an indication of in advance : FORESHADOW

That makes a prognosticator someone who "predicts future events or developments".

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  • I was considering this too. I think "forecaster" is much more common, but you do see "prognosticator" used from time to time. I feel like it might have a connotation that the prediction is made with less factual/analytical basis.
    – Dave Costa
    Aug 27 '19 at 21:35
  • In terms of commonness, "prognosticator" definitely trails "forecaster". I also don't believe it's used much regarding stock markets, as the OP suggested. However, I think it fits fairly well with the meaning and so provides a nice alternative. (As for the factual/analytical angle, the example sentence given in the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus link uses weather prediction as an example, so I think it can be used in a neutral sense.)
    – Eric
    Aug 27 '19 at 21:39
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An actuary is a business analyst who assesses future risks and uncertainties. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics describes actuaries as people who use past data and predictive models to tell the future:

Actuaries analyze the financial costs of risk and uncertainty. They use mathematics, statistics, and financial theory to assess the risk of potential events, and they help businesses and clients develop policies that minimize the cost of that risk.

At least in the United States, this is a credentialed profession - people take exams to become actuaries. (Other countries may differ in process; Denmark for example requires specific degrees to become an actuary.) Generally, actuaries refer to their field of work as actuarial science.

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  • This is the word that fits the OP's description exactly.
    – 7caifyi
    Aug 28 '19 at 16:13
  • Don't call me Shirley. Aug 29 '19 at 12:41
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Perhaps you are thinking of “analyst.”

OED (Online), 2., b.:

A specialist or expert in the analysis of events and situations or the prediction of future developments in a particular field. Frequently with modifying word, as financial analyst, military analyst, political analyst, etc.

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  • Analyst is too broad. You could be analyst of only past events. Aug 28 '19 at 0:53
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    @curiousdannii well, OP does specifically state, "It's all logic-based and determined by their perception of previous years data."
    – RonJohn
    Aug 29 '19 at 2:52
  • Please see our Help Center. This post provides little value to the site because there’s no original content here, no reason given in your own words as to why you think this is the answer. ELU is not a link-farm for thesaurus copy-pasta text. We expect expert answers, not just copies of others’ words whether attributed or not. You still have to write your own answer in your own words.
    – tchrist
    Sep 8 '19 at 17:27
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According to Merriam-Webster

futurist

  1. one who studies and predicts the future especially on the basis of current trends
  • economic futurists predict a new world order in which information is the resource that drives a nation's economy

On the web

…where fortune tellers will root their predictions in divine forces and mystical unexplained powers, futurists make their predictions based on stone cold facts. A futurist is a kind of consultant who makes predictions based on future trends they identify. Their point of view can even impact how companies design products or how communities run their outreach,…

What Is A Futurist? 12 Things To Know About The Coolest Job You Never Knew You Could Have Bustle.com

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Although it also has "clairvoyance or prophesied type" connotations, oracle has a secondary definition as

a : a person giving wise or authoritative decisions or opinions
    She became an oracle of pop culture.
b : an authoritative or wise expression or answer

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/oracle

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  • I would upvote if you could add a reference to usage in a non-superstitious context, like a YouTube video of a stock market analyst or weather forecaster being introduced as the oracle on a news program.
    – xiota
    Aug 29 '19 at 12:43
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If you want to be really specific it would be Predictive Data Analyst but I think the industry term commonly would be understood as Data Analyst. The reason they are desirable is for using the past to predict the future so 'predictive' in this case is redundant.

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In fantasy, farseer.

One who farsees; prophet; soothsayer; fortuneteller.

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  • Please see our Help Center. This post provides little value to the site because there’s no original content here, no reason given in your own words as to why you think this is the answer. ELU is not a link-farm for thesaurus copy-pasta text. We expect expert answers, not just copies of others’ words whether attributed or not. You still have to write your own answer in your own words.
    – tchrist
    Sep 8 '19 at 17:27
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I like "forecaster" (already proposed by xiota)

There's also "predictor" (which is more used about particular data sources than about people,) and "actuary" (which predicts the future statistically, rather than in individual cases.)

I think "actuary" is the best addition to this thread that hasn't already been made.

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