Is there any difference between these two sentences?
Mirek went to Europe on business.
Mirek has gone to Europe on business.
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When using the present perfect "has/have gone", the implication is that he has not returned and is still in Europe. With simple past tense, there is no such indication: he may still be in Europe or he might have returned.
Incidentally, you would normally use "Mirek went to Europe on business." when the time of the action is understood between both speakers, so the context might indicate whether he is in Europe or back where he came from.
Context is important, and without context it is difficult to know which of the statements would express your point more clearly. Of course, you didn't ask which version would be preferable. I actually think the "on business" part is problematic. I cannot imagine going to Europe on business, when a plane or ship would be far more effective.