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Is the following grammatical? If so, what would you call the phrase after the comma? It sounds somewhat like an appositive but there's no (explicit) noun to which it refers.

Bill might assume his car is parked outside, a false assumption if somebody towed it away.

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Welcome to EL&U Ishaan. The sentence is grammatical but is an example of the omission of implied words. The full version of the second clause would be

"...that would be a false assumption if somebody towed it away".

This is not apposition, as you say, because there is no noun which the second clause renames. There is a way to use apposition here though you could say

"Bill might make the assumption that his car is outside, a false one if somebody towed it away."

Here the second part of the sentence renames 'the assumption' which is a noun.

We have replaced the verb 'assumes' with the phrase 'make the assumption' so 'make' is now the verb and 'assumption' is the noun which is the object of that verb.

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