There is ON at the end of the following sentence.

Remaining aloof was no longer safe under the restored democracy of 403 on.

403 is the year.

I think without it the sentence makes sense enough. I know there is no usual sentence that ends with a preposition and there is no object of it. If I understand it as an adverb I can't find any verb that matches it.

Does it have any special meaning? If so what does it?

  • It's hard to interpret, but I believe it means "from the year 403 and in years following 403".
    – jimm101
    Commented Jun 14, 2019 at 13:06

1 Answer 1


It is the adverb (more usually "onwards" or "onward") indicating the direction in time from that specified in the sentence (403) or context (the restoration of [Athenian] democracy).


The sentence would be understood with "on" omitted, but the usage implies a continuing danger here, as opposed to a brief period during the restoration year/s.


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