I think it's common in geology to show the different minerals and soils, and in construction to show how the elements are fastened, but I can't find the right term.
It is a cross section. Merriam-Webster:
1a : a cutting or piece of something cut off at right angles to an axis also : a representation of such a cutting
3 : a composite representation typifying the constituents of a thing in their relations
Here is a cross section of the Earth from USGS. Notice that the section looks as if the Earth were sliced along a vertical axis: