I have the following table:

enter image description here

On the last column, I have expressed the numbers in billions as it is mentioned at the top. However, I want the last number (Final sample size) to be expressed fully. Is there a way that I can be specific about the fact that this is the full number and not rounded up in billions?

Thank you!

  • 3
    I'm probably missing something obvious, but isn't that last sum 205 million rather than billion?
    – S Conroy
    May 10, 2019 at 18:12
  • 1
    In addition to the comment from @SConroy, I find the number shown for the final total quite confusing: it is still in a column headed "(in billions)", which (according to your description) is not correct. If the final total is in different units from that shown at the top of the column, then the description at the left of that row should be amplified.
    – TrevorD
    May 10, 2019 at 18:36
  • 2
    But you still haven't addressed the issue raised by @SConroy that there is inconsistency as to whether your final total is in millions or billions!
    – TrevorD
    May 10, 2019 at 18:49
  • 1
    How can the grand total be 205+ million, when the first item listed in the column is 26.5 billion, & the second item in the column is 6.01 billion?
    – TrevorD
    May 10, 2019 at 18:55
  • 2
    I also refer you to the comments from @JasonBassford below the accepted answer - and which postdate your last reply to me - that "the table is unclear and should be reformatted. (Personally, I'd remove the final cell from the table altogether and express it separately.)"
    – TrevorD
    May 11, 2019 at 11:44

1 Answer 1


The most common word for a number that is not rounded up or down, nor approximated in any way is "exact".

The fact that the number is without a decimal and expressed to nine significant figures should be enough for most people to realize it is the exact number, but you can indicate it specifically if you like.

  • 1
    Also note that, despite the comments under the question, the final cell is not necessarily part of the existing columns. It only appears to be because it is underneath all of the other rows that are underneath the headings. But by making it a single cell, it could easily be seen as not following those headings. After all, final sample size is not a filtering step, so the number shouldn't have to be # of obs. (in billions) either. It just means that the table is unclear and should be reformatted. (Personally, I'd remove the final cell from the table altogether and express it separately.) May 11, 2019 at 9:44

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