I was wondering if the word sans is correctly used in the following sentences: He was broke sans a few dollars. He was naked sans a shirt. Can it be used in more ways than simply the word without?
The definition of sans is simply without, see for example Merriam-Webster. They also provide some examples of use:
She went to the party sans her husband.
anyone sans shirt will not be allowed in the restaurant
Similarly, the Oxford Dictionary has:
‘a picture of Maughan sans specs’
So I'm not sure that your usage would be understood. You presumably mean "naked except for a shirt" in your second example, not "naked without a shirt".