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There has been a few questions on this but this one example has never really been answered. If you were writing a report on the year before and you wanted to say that the a project was completed in that year, would you say:

  1. In 2018, the Genesis project was successfully completed
  2. By 2018, the Genesis project was successfully completed

The meaning I want to convey is that during 2018, the project was completed, not before.

Thanks

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The meaning I want to convey is that during 2018, the project was completed, not before.

Then you should use

In 2018, the Genesis project was successfully completed.

It was completed in that year and not before.

By 2018, the Genesis project was successfully completed.

[could mean] it was completed by the end of 2017 and possibly even years before.

  • Just as I thought, thanks for the help! – Hugh O'Donnell Apr 24 at 9:15
  • Not necessarily. If you had been describing work on the project in previous years, it would be natural to say 'By 2018 it was completed'. However, as you are writing a report just on events of 2018, 'In' is probably better. – Kate Bunting Apr 24 at 12:38
  • Sure. It would be natural to say that if you meant it was accomplished by the beginning of the year. You're right that in certain contexts it could mean "by the end of the year", though, so I'll emend the answer. All the same, "in" is much clearer and what Mr O'Donnell was trying to get across. – lly Apr 24 at 13:14

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