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Let we have the statements like

We are doing observations by telescopes, by radio-telescopes, by heliometers etc. But stars do exist independently of by which (what?) they are (being?) observed (??)

I need the correct ending phrase (emphasized) in the last sentence and its, if any, shorter version; i.e., without mentioning the noun-verb they are. What I typed above is likely erroneous, sorry. That is, I'm looking for something like a question-form to the by in the 1-st sentence. Here is a guiding analog:

People do something for bla-bla

So the question-form for ending phrase here is

He is doing bla-bla independently of what for.

I see the word wherewith in a dictionary. Collins explains the word as, probably, archaic with or by which. Does it help here?

  • Please quote the entire sentence. Quoting fragments and placeholders does not help in understanding what you're asking. You found wherewith in a dictionary: what did that tell you? Did you find examples of its use (perhaps in a different dictionary)? Please show the results of your research. – Andrew Leach Apr 19 at 11:13
  • Thanks so much. I retyped the question – user2626 Apr 19 at 12:32
  • "But stars do exist independently of how they are [being] observed" or "But stars do exist independently of the means by which they are [being] observed" – user323578 Apr 19 at 16:37
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Telescope need not be used in the plural for these purposes.

The observed exists independently of the means of observation. The observed exists independent of the tools we use.

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