I am citing a verse from the Bible and attempting to refer to similar-meaning verses in the same parenthetical citation. An example is as follows:

“God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble” (Proverbs 3:34, James 4:6, 1 Peter 5:5; see also Psalm 138:6, Proverbs 29:23, Matthew 23:12, Luke 1:52).

In this example the first three verses contain the quote exactly while the following four citations are verses with a similar meaning.

I know of some parenthetical citation abbreviations like "e.g." and "cf." Does anything similar exist for "see also"?

  • 1
    There is "et al." but it does not usually include the actual references. Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 19:40
  • 2
    In practice cf. is used in these situations: you are recommending that your reader compare these sources to the verse you cite. Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 19:47
  • @StoneyB That is true even if they are saying roughly the same thing? I thought that cf. was used to contrast more so. Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 20:06
  • 1
    It may be used either way. It is courteous to prepare the reader by indicating whether similarity or contrast is intended, but this can be accomplished very simply with and cf. or but cf.. Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 21:33

1 Answer 1


I've seen "vide quoque," but I haven't seen it abbreviated as "v.q.," not like how you see "i.e." or "e.g."

Incidentally, it requires a comma after it like other similar Latin expressions.


In the New Testament, The Gospel According to Matthew provides Jesus' genealogy in chapter 1 (vide quoque, The Gospel According to Luke, chapter 3).



  • Very interesting. Thanks a lot! Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 20:11
  • 1
    You're welcome. You might be able to use "v.q." after you had used "vide quoque" once. Like with acronyms, once you've established the meaning of something in writing, you can later abbreviate it. Commented Mar 29, 2019 at 20:17

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.