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The sentence "Please find attached the file containing the data you requested" is often seen at the beginning of emails. To be precise, the first part of it (Please find attached the file). The second part(containing the data you requested) provides more details about the attached file and varies based on the situation.

In English, a verb is typically followed by the object. Having written that, "find the file" should be together. But they are not. What part of speech is the word "attached", is it adjective, or passive? And why "attached" can split verb from object? What rule is applied here?

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"Please find attached the file [...]" is just the sentence, "Please find the file attached [...]" with a different word order. "Attached" is a participle in both sentences, making it act like an adjective. (It modifies "file".)

As for why it can split the verb and it's object, well, I think a formalist would tell you it can't (or shouldn't) and that the example sentence contains a syntax error. But this kind of splitting is seen sometimes in spoken language and informal writing. C'est la vie. (That's life.)

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    I doubt a formalist would claim there’s anything wrong with this construction. There is nothing wrong with a verb and its object being split up, and when the construction entails a predicative complement to an object as long as noun phrases containing relative clauses can get, it’s almost inevitable that the object gets pushed to the end of the sentence. – Janus Bahs Jacquet Mar 20 at 23:25

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