Example: These are/were the images presented by us.

Is "presented" in this case a postpositive adjective or a predicative adjective in an attributive clause?

In case "presented" is a verb here, can I use it without using subject, like in the example above?

  • Presented is a past participle reduced by Whiz-deletion from a relative clause, a transform of the images which were presented. Mar 11, 2019 at 22:08

1 Answer 1


[1] These are the images [which were presented by us].

[2] These are the images [presented by us].

Compare the two examples. In [1] the bracketed element is a relative clause modifying "images".

In [2] the bracketed clause also modifies "images", but this time it's a past-participial clause, not a relative one. Semantically they are similar, of course, but we don't call [2] a relative clause since there's no possibility of inserting a relative phrase (cf. *"These are the images which presented by us".). I don’t want to be positing a deleted verb.

Some people call [2] a 'reduced relative clause', but that term is a misnomer. The crucial property of relative clauses is the presence of some relativised element (overt or covert) that is anaphorically linked to a noun or nominal, and this property is not present here.

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