First, I don't think you are using caveat correctly, if we agree that it means:
a warning of the limits of a particular agreement or statement
then your example is awkward and ambiguous.
The emperor did further women's rights, however, his new laws contained certain warnings of the limits which favored men.
So, it is not really clear what you want there. I will propose a very common word as a substitute in this specific sentence
The emperor did further women's rights, however, his new laws contained certain limitations which favored men.
(stipulations, clauses and conditions would work, too)