It is very hard to read a mathematical expression unambiguously unless it is a very simple one. Mathematical notation is dense and unambiguous as written, but English is neither, and so the translation is neither easy nor unambiguous.
Math also uses hundreds of symbols that the non expert would not be familiar with. I doubt there is any quick and easy way to learn this from a cheat sheet. Math has a grammar that includes not only symbols, but also a geometric grammar that changes the meaning of symbols depending on their 2 dimensional position relative to other symbols. As a trivial example, if you see x and y next to each other, it often means x times y, but if y is slightly smaller and raised off the baseline, it means x to the power of y. Also, the meaning of a mathematical expression often is slightly different depending on the branch of mathematics under consideration.
The bottom line is that unless you understand the meaning of the underlying math, you are going to need someone who does to tutor you through it.