Is there a difference between:
How did I do this?
How did I do that?
If not, is there a preferred one? If they are different, when should I choose one over the other?
I am not a native English speaker.
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If the task you are wondering about is right in front of your eyes or you chose to do it yourself, use "this". If someone else brings that tasks to you and you're wondering how to tackle it, use "that".
If I remember correctly, "this" usually refers to something closer to the speaker than "that".
"How did I do that" usually refers to something you did before, like you were discussing with a friend the bungee jumping that you did yesterday. "How did I do this" refers to when you just did something, and it's right in front of your eyes, like if you were talking to a friend right after finishing the bungee jump. "How did I do this" also often relates to an object, and "How did I do that" refers to a situation, often.
So that's it! If there are questions you can ask me, I am a native English speaker.