Recently happened again upon the word "cynosure" and noted it's Greek etymology, e.g. from Wordsmith.org:
Originally the term was applied to the constellation Ursa Minor or the North Star (Polaris) that was used in navigation. The term is derived from Latin Cynosura (Ursa Minor), from Greek kynosoura (dog's tail), ultimately from the Indo-European root kwon- (dog) that is also the source of canine, chenille (from French chenille: caterpillar, literally, little dog), cynic, kennel, canary, hound, dachshund, and corgi. And from the root ors- (buttocks) which also gave us ass, dodo, and squirrel.
I've seen several such references etymologically but have found nothing more fleshed out. Wikipedia maps out many historical associations of the constellation, none of which are related to dogs; in particular the Greek association seems to have been about Zeus/Hera/Callisto:
The classical mythographer identified the "Bear" as the nymph Callisto, changed into a she-bear by Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus.
Clearly a bear has a tail... what's the relationship to dogs?