As an example, let's say a company does an employee satisfaction survey and the scores come back low. Instead of addressing the complaints, they send out a memo saying that they'll start basing bonuses on the survey results. Lo and behold, scores improve dramatically, and the execs pat themselves on the back for raising employee satisfaction.
Or perhaps a factory has a perfect safety record on paper, so when someone gets injured, they pressure the person to not report it as a workplace injury.
Basically, having a metric for some real-world situation, but then making the metric artificially high in ways that don't relate to the situation it was designed to track.