1

For example, in the case of the following sentence, do you capitalize the "Good Morning!" and the next part "It..."?

Mr. Smith, Good Morning! It was a pleasure meeting you the other day.

Please let me know. Best, James

2

The simple answer is no; you do not capitalize "good morning." The correct capitalization is this: Mr. Smith, good morning! It was a pleasure meeting you the other day.

And indeed, although "good morning" doesn't have a subject and verb, it is still considered a complete sentence -- and so, "Mr. Smith, good morning!" would also be a sentence. That is, some groups of words, such as "Good morning" are considered sentences even though they don't follow the rules.

  • The missing words are assumed to exist: Mr Smith, [I bid you] good morning! Or Mr. Smith, [I hope you have a] good morning. – Jason Bassford Jan 16 at 0:40
  • I'll stick with the idea that many sentences break the rule of needing a subject and verb: "Yes." is a sentence. "Down with tradition!" is another. – Bklyn df Jan 16 at 21:38
  • 1
    They don't break the rule. The rule is simply implicit. "Do you agree?" "Yes [I agree]. – Jason Bassford Jan 16 at 21:50
-1

"Mr. Smith, good morning!" is not a complete sentence.

It does look like something I'd expect to see at the beginning of a letter. In a letter, the salutation ("Mr. Smith") and the beginning of the first line ("Good morning") would both be capitalized. Note that the salutation is written on a different line:

Dear Mr. Smith,

Good morning! It was a pleasure meeting you the other day.

To answer the question in your title, we only capitalize the first word of a sentence any subsequent proper nouns.

John Smith Wished me a good morning -> John Smith wished me a good morning
President Lincoln Delivered the Gettysburg Address -> President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address
McDonald's Is a popular restaurant chain -> McDonald's is a popular restaurant chain.

Also note, there is no reason to capitalize "Morning" in "good morning" (unless you're using "Good Morning" as a title).

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