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You need to have some friends whom you learn social graces from

You need to have some friends from whom you learn social graces

You need to have some friends you learn social graces from

(All three ways are correct to use)

Now the question is 👇

You need to have some friends around you to learn social graces "from" OR "from them"?

  • If you leave them off, the clause is a relative infinitive modifying friends, and grammatical. If you put them at the end, the clause can't be interpreted as a relative, so it is interpreted as a purpose infinitive, announcing the reason you need to have some friends around. The meaning is slightly different but covers the same ground, so it really doesn't matter which one you pick. I'd pick the shorter one because it's simpler to parse. – John Lawler Jan 7 at 16:16
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You need to have some friends around you to learn social graces "from" OR "from them"

Both are correct, but grammatically different.

In:

  • You need to have some friends around you to learn social graces from.

to learn social graces from modifies the noun "friends", similar to what happens in phrases like friends to go out with, friends to confide in, friends to share your time with.

Instead, in:

  • You need to have some friends around you to learn social graces from them.

to learn social graces from them is an adjunct of purpose that relates to the verb phrase "need to have (some friends around you)". Proof of this is that this infinitival phrase will answer a question like:

  • Why do I need to have friends around?

OR

  • What do I need to have friends around for?

Note: I think "reduction of clause" is a confusing title for this question.

  • 1
    It certainly is a confusing title. But it's a confusing question. It's about two kinds of infinitive, not about reducing clauses. – John Lawler Jan 7 at 16:12
  • sorry for the title. actually, I am not familiar with grammatical names. I just wrote what I thought is close to the question. and also thank you for the answers – mohammad Jan 8 at 7:36

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