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Should I use "by" or "to" in the following?

If you create the image for the user and it's approved, it's then visible and usable by all members.

OR:

If you create the image for the user and it's approved, it's then visible and usable to all members.

By the way, the long-form is "If you create the image for the user and it's approved, it's then visible to (and usable by) all members.". I was just trying to make it as simple as possible.

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    You could rephrase the sentence and bypass the problem altogether: If you create the image for the user and it's approved, all members will find it visible and usable. In fact, that sounds better to me anyway. – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Dec 18 '18 at 8:37
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    Visible takes to and usable takes by. So you can't delete either prepositions by conjunction reduction, since they're not identical. Thus the solution is to delete only the repeated object and leave the two prepositions: ... then it's visible to and usable by all members. – John Lawler Dec 18 '18 at 15:07
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The problem here is that visible and usable are not the same. Normally, you would use visible to and usable by:

stars visible to the naked eye
Merriam-Webster

Google Ngram:

enter image description here

Google Ngram:

enter image description here

However, since visible by is also acceptable, I would go with the less awkward combination:

visible and usable by all members.

rather than:

visible to and usable by all members.


I suppose:

visible and usable to all members.

is also grammatically correct, but it doesn't have exactly the same meaning: something is either usable or unusable (worthless) to me. If something is made available to me so I can use it, it becomes usable by me.

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According to numerous examples in Reverso.context.net we should use only 'by' here. See one of the examples: 'Data for wood resource balances should be collected and analysis be carried out in close collaboration with the energy sector in such a way that the results be usable by all participants in the overall debate and work on renewable energy.'

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