First, let me illustrate how hard this is:
I started by searching for adjectives describing light in the Oxford Historical Thesaurus. It is a powerful tool that categorizes words by functions and lists their synonyms. Because lightness and darkness are often treated as separate qualities, the words are listed under two different headers:
the world > matter > light > intensity of light > [adjective] (91)
the world > matter > light > darkness or absence of light > dimness or absence of brightness > [adjective] (65)
Word lists will tend towards the same flaw. This list? Or this one? It's mostly words describing light. It's hard to organize these into strict ranges, since there will be a lot of overlap between entries. (You try describing the difference between "sparkling" and "coruscating.")
This list from RhymeZone is better, since the second half of the entries cover levels of brightness as well as dimness. It isn't in order of brightness, but it's a start.