Is there a good way to describe theories that are very different in their underlying story about how a system works, yet the theories prescribe similar actions.
("actions" assume the theory is about how to best control a particular system eg. training people, running the economy, etc. We could also talk about "outcomes" if the theory is about predicting the world eg. the post-election scramble to explain voter behaviour in politics)
One example is from dog training:
There are many theories about how a dog should be trained (alpha & dominance theories, positive reinforcement, operant conditioning etc...). They prescribe very different things about how a dog thinks, but ultimately the training suggested is far more similar than it is dissimilar: be consistent when trying to ingrain or remove behaviours.
As such, these theories are hard to differentiate by outcome; they lead you to take very similar actions despite the underlying reasoning for those actions being quite different.
Is there a word or phrase to describe this? I can imagine there is something in moral philosophy to describe theories that have different underlying tenets but prescribe similar actions as ethical.
SAMPLE SENTENCE: "Those theories are X, it doesn't matter which you believe as they lead to the same action"
(PS. Best I can think of is physical science terms like "non-differential hypotheses", but that doesn't feel like a good fit here)