This question about alien species and planets brought up something I've been thinking about on and off for years.

We capitalize names of alien races like Vulcan, Timelord, Cylon (well, maybe not alien), Krell, Nox, Minbari, and so on, but we never capitalize human.

So how did we end up capitalizing names for sentient species when we don't do that for our own race?

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    The title would have been funnier if you had left "our own" all lowercase ;)
    – Daniel
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 20:06
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    Maybe you wacky sci-fi people like to capitalize everything, but here in fantasyland our elves, dwarves, dragons, centaurs, merfolk, and other non-human human-rivals are all lowercase.
    – jwodder
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 23:51
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    @jwodder Yeah, but see, elves, dwarves, dragons and the like all live on the planet with us. Otherwise, they'd be Vulcan elves, Skrullian dwarves, and Alderanian dragons.
    – Kit Z. Fox
    Commented Nov 5, 2011 at 0:25
  • Mike Resnick's works have always capitalized "Man" as the name of our species. Probably not coincidentally, they also often feature other species talking about Man.
    – user2400
    Commented Nov 5, 2011 at 22:06
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    Keep in mind that none of those others exist.
    – Hot Licks
    Commented Jan 3, 2016 at 21:15

4 Answers 4


Most of the names you give are derived from proper place names, or clan names, or such, so using "human" as a comparison is not accurate.

For instance, Vulcan and Minbari are named for their planets. We would capitalize Terran likewise (or Earthling or Martian).

Also Krell, Nox, and Timelord are groups of peoples (my apologies for not using a panxenic term, but "beings" was too confusing). We would likewise capitalize Irish, Passamaquoddy, Vandals, etc. (And naturally, Timelords are Gallifreyan, just as Mongols are Terran.) Or if you consider them more like ethnicities, you would still capitalize them, like you do with Jewish, Native American, Latina, etc.

Also, in response to Vulcans born off-world as still being Vulcans, I'd make the argument that Asians born in America (for instance) are still often called Asian, or Asian-American.

And finally, I think and I know I may well be dunned for it, that Cylon was a "brand" name for the original cybernetic organisms. And we would likewise capitalize Sunbeam, Keurig, General Electric, etc.

So then by example, human is not capitalized because it is not a proper noun, and not derived from a proper noun. Vulcans, Minbari, and Timelords are humanoid beings. There are also reptilian beings, silicon beings, and energy beings, but we don't capitalize any of those types of beings (human, humanoid, reptilian, silicon, energy, etc).

It is a good question, though. Here is a discussion that you may find interesting.

  • And thanks for the link, too. I'm glad to see I'm not the only writer to have pondered this.
    – TangoOversway
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 18:14
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    Branding is important if you're going to take over the human race
    – Zelda
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 19:05
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    I find groups of beings awfully vague, especially now that this is an EL&U question. Are humans not a group of beings? Also, the Irish come from Ireland; thus they fall under the Vulcan example. It is more debatable whether the Vandals are named after their place of origin.
    – John Y
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 21:13
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    @TangoOversway: Personally, I would capitalize Gallifreyans but not capitalize time lord. But that's just me. (I recognize that it is customary to capitalize Time Lord.)
    – John Y
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 21:51
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    Back when people were much more racist than they are today, the different "races" were all capitalized –– e.g., Negro, Caucasian, Oriental. I am sure this had an influence on this practice. Commented Nov 5, 2011 at 14:24

Actually, I think some writers in some contexts would capitalize "Human", especially in the context of interstellar sentient races, just as some writers capitalize Earth when referring to the planet in the context of other named planets.

I think the case for not capitalizing human is that we normally use it as a common noun, not a proper one. For example, we would write "there are people over there". We could just as well write "there are humans over there", but we wouldn't use "there are People over there".

I'm actually all for capitalizing Human and Earth in science fiction, though some writers will opt for different words instead, such as Terran (as mentioned in Kit's answer), so that the "properness" of the name is clearer.

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    The planet Earth is generally capitalized, not only in fiction. "Some writers capitalize Earth when referring to the planet" is therefore not correct – they all do that. Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 21:37
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    The more I think about this question, the more I think the easiest solution is to just start capitalizing Human when it refers to the species and using "human" when referring to behavior or other loose usage.
    – Tango
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 21:38
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    @Felix: No, I have definitely seen writers use earth to mean the planet Earth, both generally and in science fiction. I fully agree that it should be capitalized (and if I were an editor, I would insist on it), but in the real world, many writers simply don't.
    – John Y
    Commented Nov 4, 2011 at 21:46
  • This has been (inconclusively) discussed: english.stackexchange.com/q/2286/8019 Commented Nov 5, 2011 at 13:08

Capitalization has nothing to do with conventions in any particular genre. In English, we capitalize proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns. Vulcan, Earthling, and Venusian are all adjectives derived from the proper nouns Vulcan Earth, and Venus. Human is not a proper noun, any more the elf, dwarf, people, or purple-people-eater.

We capitalize Earth (or Venus, or Mars, or Terra, or Cygnus-XYJ) when referring to a planet, celestial body, or crazed celebrity brand pseudonym, because those would all be proper nouns. We do not capitalize earth when we mean dust or soil.

Incidentally, we capitalize Elf when we are referring to the movie, and I suppose if we were to start talking about the main character's dizzy, breathless wonder as "a thing" we might describe someone, somewhere, as being Elfian, but please don't.

I have a related post at http://wp.me/p1RPTJ-6x

  • Elfan, surely :-) Commented Feb 27, 2014 at 6:36
  • So.. Earthhumans is fine?
    – Vix
    Commented Mar 20, 2021 at 20:03

I checked in in this because I am writing a scifi story and was running into the issue. I have concluded Earth is capitalized when discussing the place, but not the soil. And Human is capitalized when discussing the species as a specific people but not a classification. For example, the Human ambassador versus the ambassador's human nature.

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  • Hasn't this already been given in answers, JD? Commented Dec 4, 2021 at 13:29
  • You're talking about a general rule of usage. For instance, if I'm talking about Johnny's female parent, I'll write "Johnny's mom," but if I'm talking about mine, and am calling her, I'll be writing, "Hey, Mom, can you look at this?" So that's my first thought on this. The second is that I have yet to see this rule used with the word human.
    – Tango
    Commented Dec 5, 2021 at 6:16

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