This sentence is from Wikipedia:

A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common name, and published on at least one web server.

Is the word including mentioned in the above text
a) the present participle of the standard verb "include"
b) the gerund of the standard verb "include"
c) the substitution form of the standard verb "include"
d) an adverb?

closed as off-topic by Janus Bahs Jacquet, Jason Bassford, Scott, J. Taylor, Hellion Nov 20 '18 at 14:29

This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:

If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • I edited your question to include a link to the source material. (And to put the quotation in a block quote.) – Jason Bassford Nov 12 '18 at 8:26
  • 1
    Look up the word in a good dictionary. Good Luck. – Kris Nov 12 '18 at 9:05

Including is used as a preposition here.

You use including to introduce examples of people or things that are part of the group of people or things that you are talking about.

...many conditions, including allergies, hyperactivity and tooth decay.

See also other gerunds used as prepositions: e.g., excluding, excepting, barring.

  • Or a present participle. Just wanted to double check. – Milan Andreew Nov 12 '18 at 18:35

", including multimedia content," is a (free modifier) parenthetical (adverbial) phrase. 'Including' is here an active (present) participle (not a gerund). The addition of this phrase is a short-cut way of saying "A website includes multimedia content."

I'm not familiar with the term 'substitutive verb'. The participle "including" is a non-finite form of the verb, so when it lacks an auxiliary verb it equates to "to include", making it a gerund (noun), but in adverbial use the auxiliary (a form of 'be' matching the main tense) is simply assumed, so it is not a gerund -- a noun phrase is never adverbial (unless it is temporal, in which case a preposition can be assumed; but I digress).

{Regarding the other answer: Just because a word precedes a noun phrase does not make it a preposition.}

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.