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E.g. if someone said "He sent a message to he and I." because they were trying to prevent the common error of using objects as subjects but ended up making the inverse mistake when they used subjects as objects.

Sorry for this trivial question on a word I can't seem to remember, I haven't found what it's called through Google yet.

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A term commonly used to describe what you’re talking about—using a grammatical rule in an inappropriate place often in an effort to be correct—is hypercorrection.

This term applies not only to syntax but also pronunciation. For example, a speaker of British English might pronounce law with an r at the end (as in lore) due to hypercorrection when trying to speak in an American accent because British English speakers drop syllabic final r’s. Thus, the reverse rule—adding r’s at the back of syllables ending in vowels (open syllables)—is often over applied to syllables that are supposed to be open.

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It is a "compounded" error or mistake. It means to add to a difficulty, error, or mistake and thus make it worse. Compounded, when defined in this sense, can be used no matter how many times the error is repeated.

Attempting to correct the first error, he said "He sent a message to he and I.", and it was also wrong - thus he compounded his first mistake.

See definition 7 of this link: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/compound

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