For example: "I could tell he had had a great time at the circus."
If you're not repeating the word for emphasis, is there a term for the sequential usage, other than "coincidence"?
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You might call this a homonymic phrase (or compound).
Since homonyms are words that sound the same (or are spelled the same) this might be a proper term do describe a phrase, or a part of a phrase, that includes them.
Reading through the closest article to the subject, that I could find in wikipedia did not reveal any specific terms that would cover this scenario.
There are plenty of contrived sentences allowing anything up to an infinite number of repetitions, but no-one has actually given an example where repeating a word serves to emphasise anything. So how about...
Me: I can see the appeal of Polanski's films if you're a paedophile.
You: I like Polanski's films, but I'm not a paedophile!
Me: I didn't mean you you. I mean if someone else was a paedophile.
Okay, maybe not the best example. But I do think it conveys emphasis.
You can occasionally repeat a word for emphasis, usually in speech; for example:
She looked over her shoulder and said: 'He's very, very good ...'
But you can't repeat adjectives for emphasis; for example:
a red, red cloth
Is incorrect; whilst
a very red cloth
is fine. However, it is doable in certain languages, for examlle - Bengali; the forner translates as
lal (red), lal (red) kapor (cloth)
It's where the double not for emphases not comes from. I don't know the grammatical term that describes this, but there is likely to be one.