According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term in English originally was:
(a collective term for) geometry, arithmetic, and certain physical sciences involving geometrical reasoning, such as astronomy and optics; spec[ifically] the disciplines of the quadrivium collectively.
The earliest example they listed is from 1545 (although this may be an example of the noun "mathematic" which is defined as "a mathematician; an astrologer"):
Nature hath prouyded the hart to be set so egallye in the middest of the brest, as is possyble to be deuysed, by al the mathematikes in the worlde
An introduction into phisycke wyth an vniuersal dyet, gathered by Christofer Langton.
There's also a 1573 example:
Amonge other studies..he cheefly applied himself to Physick and Mathematickes.
Virgil's Whole .xii. Books Æneidos
As for its etymology, the OED says it was formed within English from the adjective mathematic (and was modeled "probably after physics, metaphysics, etc., rather than ancient Greek τὰ μαθηματικά"). "Mathematic", however, is "Partly a borrowing from French. Partly a borrowing from Latin." Specifically, it's from the French word mathematique and the Latin words mathēmaticus, mathēmatica.