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It leads me to the confusion, when it comes to contradicting between some prepositions.

Today, I want to know the distinction between the two similar senses of these prepositions: under, underneath, below and beneath.

Sense No. 1. extending directly below (something else) or extending directly underneath.

The following example sentence suggests that we can use all of the four prepositions mentioned above:

  1. Our bedroom is right under theirs.

    1. Our bedroom is right underneath theirs.

I am not sure wether this sentence 2 can this be like this: underneath theirs, is our bedroom.

  1. Our bedroom is right below theirs.

  2. Our bedroom is right beneath theirs.


Sense No. 2. at a lower level or layer than, or so as to be concealed.

The sentence for this sense:

  1. The tunnel under the crags . . .

  2. The tunnel underneath the crags . . .

  3. The tunnel below the crags . . .

  4. The tunnel beneath the crags . . .

The Oxford Dictionaries site provides the same definitions of these two senses of under, underneath, below, beneath. In terms of these two senses, is there any subtle difference between these four prepositions? Or one is most formal/informal than the rest.


And what about their spelling pattern:

If under is to underneath, but why below is to beneath, rather than belowneath?

  • 1
    A thread on Myenglishteacher.eu has addressed this exact issue in great detail. Question will therefore be flagged for closure. – VTH Sep 7 '18 at 8:33
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    @VTH, the link you provided does not answer my question in some, nor that is as same as my question is. In the link, the website says in its first point: "under is used when something is directly under another." but here I want to ask that the OED provides the same definitions of all these prepositions, denoting that they are directly below or under something else. – Ahmed Sep 7 '18 at 8:42
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    @VTH, Okay, well, going to do that. :) – Ahmed Sep 7 '18 at 9:07
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    It's not the OED, it's Oxford Dictionaries. The first (extremely exhaustive and detailed) is available only on subscription, the second, its sister-site, is free and available to everyone. – Mari-Lou A Sep 7 '18 at 9:20
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    Use beneath and underneath in set phrases and idiomatic expressions. For all practical purposes, these are deprecated. – Kris Sep 7 '18 at 12:40
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+100

These are four very similar words, and while native English speakers will likely agree on which one to choose in a given context, they would probably find it difficult to say why. The differences are extremely subtle, and there's a degree of overlap.

Rather than presenting standard dictionary definitions, I found that an etymological analysis helped me get a better sense of the usage:

below (adv.)

"in a lower position," early 14c., biloogh, from be- "by, about" + logh, lou, lowe "low" [...] Apparently a variant of earlier a-lowe (influenced by other adverbs in be-; see before), the parallel form to an-high (now on high).

Beneath was the usual word; below was very rare in Middle English and gained currency only in 16c. It is frequent in Shakespeare. As a preposition from 1570s. In nautical use, "off-duty," in contradistinction to "on deck." Meaning "inferior in rank or dignity" is from c. 1600.

According to Fowler, below is the opposite of above and concerns difference of level and suggests comparison of independent things. Under is the opposite of over and is concerned with superposition and subjection and suggests some interrelation.

beneath (adv., prep.)

Old English beneoðan "under, below, in a lower place, further down than," in late Old English "lower in rank, degree, excellence, etc.," from be- "by" + neoðan "below, down, from below," from Proto-Germanic **niþar* "lower, farther down, down" (see nether). Meaning "unworthy of" is attested from 1849 (purists prefer below in this sense). "The be- gave or emphasized the notion of 'where,' excluding that of 'whence' pertaining to the simple niðan" [OED].

under (prep., adv.)

Old English under (prep.) "beneath, among, before, in the presence of, in subjection to, under the rule of, by means of," also, as an adverb, "beneath, below, underneath," expressing position with reference to that which is above, from Proto-Germanic *under- (source also of Old Frisian under, Dutch onder, Old High German untar, German unter, Old Norse undir, Gothic undar), from PIE *ndher- "under" (source also of Sanskrit adhah "below;" Avestan athara- "lower;" Latin infernus "lower," infra "below").

Productive as a prefix in Old English, as in German and Scandinavian (often forming words modeled on Latin ones in sub-). Notion of "inferior in rank, position, etc." was present in Old English. With reference to standards, "less than in age, price, value," etc., late 14c. As an adjective, "lower in position; lower in rank or degree" from 13c. Also

underneath (adv.)

Old English underneoðan, from under + neoðan "below" (see beneath).

This duplication of meanings serves to emphasise an immediacy or directness in the locational relationship. ODO says "Situated directly below (something else)".


So, to very broadly summarise:

  • below is more likely to indicate a simple level in an above/below duality
  • beneath adds a hint of inferiority or lower order
  • under tends to be used in a superposition of related/connected things
  • underneath is like "under" but more immediately or directly so.

Regarding your question about "spelling patterns", this is partly explained above in the etymology. To elaborate on "below" and "beneath": they're each composed of the prefix "be-" (a directional indicator) plus a locational word - "low", or "neath" (related to "nether" - think of the Netherlands = "low country").

be-

word-forming element of verbs and nouns from verbs, with a wide range of meaning: "about, around; thoroughly, completely; to make, cause seem; to provide with; at, on, to, for;" from Old English be- "about, around, on all sides" (the unstressed form of bi "by").


Finally, to demonstrate how subtle and indeed fickle the differences are:

  • that behaviour was beneath him - but we probably wouldn't use "below" and definitely not "under" or "underneath";
  • that performance was below par - or maybe "under par" but definitely not "beneath" or "underneath";
  • she slid the key underneath the mat - "under" would work just as well, but "beneath" would be a bit unusual and we wouldn't use "below";
  • I'm below the age limit - "under" is probably just as common but seems a bit more colloquial, while neither "beneath" nor "underneath" would be used.
  • I've accepted your detailed, well-defined answer, but can you please add some information about the spelling pattern of these four prepositions. I've asked this in my question, too. – Ahmed Sep 13 '18 at 14:08
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    Thanks Ahmed. I've added a spelling explanation for the two "be-" words; the other two words are already explained in the etymology section. Hope that completes what you're after :-) – Chappo Sep 13 '18 at 14:30
  • Some of your statements are incorrect: "beneath adds a hint of inferiority or lower order", That is not true for physical things. You do not make the physical/non-physical distinction. – Lambie Sep 13 '18 at 16:10
  • under tends to be used in a superposition of related/connected things that is not true. Under is not about "superposition", which is relevant or a word much used in English. Only people are fickle, never things. – Lambie Sep 13 '18 at 16:11
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Although the four words are frequently used interchangeably, somewhat different senses can be made or understood - i.e. the "direct or immediate" position of something as opposed to a more "general" position of something (meaning simply lower than). The prepositions under and below would more commonly be used in a general sense.

  • The ball is on the floor below the table (anywhere on the floor below the table).

  • The ball is on the floor beneath the table (typically understood as directly below the table).

  • The ball is on the floor under the table (generally on the floor under the table).

  • The ball is on the floor underneath the table (positioned directly under the table).


Your final question is interesting. I would have to agree that the preposition 'underneath' does seem to be redundant. Just looking at its old English origin (see the etymology for underneath) - possibly this was for emphasis.

  • Yes, the prepositional uses. – Lambie Sep 12 '18 at 13:12
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While below and under can be used in the same sentences as beneath and underneath, there is a subtle difference which may be more apparent depending on context.

Under and below denote proximity in two dimensions - in other words: If you were looking at a page with a picture of a table near the top and a picture of an apple closer to the bottom, you could say that the apple is under or below the table. It would be more likely to say that the apple is beneath, or underneath, the table if visual cues indicated that the apple occupied a space (in three dimensions) which the table stood over.

-4

There are uses of these words for physical things, and non-physical things. There's the rub.

1) Our bedroom is right "under, below, underneath or beneath theirs". All four mean the same thing. And everything here is physical.

There is no real difference. Just as if you tell your carpenter, "I want to build a walk-in closet in my bedroom which is under the attic". the meaning would not change if you use any of those terms.

However, there is this: as an adverb, beneath is used like this:

"What lies beneath is a large cavern." There, "beneath" is an adverb and tells us where the cavern lies. Here, only beneath, underneath,and below can be used. You cannot use "what lies under" here, only "what lies underneath". So, beneath and underneath can be adverbs.

Under cannot be used as an adverb in the sense of the cavern sentence. It is a preposition. And can also be used in the phrasal verb,for example: go under. The business went under last week. meaning: stopped running due to monetary issues. go under is like "drown". And can literally mean to drown, also.

That said, in some contexts, below and under (beneath,underneath) are not 100%.

"My house lay below theirs on a beautiful, flower-covered hillside". In a vertical-type plane, below means located at a lower level on that same plane. Here, we would not say "under". In this sense, none of the others work. And this is the tricky one, too.

There is also the use of beneath referring to a more moral sense: I would not do that,it is beneath me aka below me. On a moral plane,some action or behavior is considered to "beneath one"and colloquially, "below one".

Finally, in a textual context, we say: The explanation is in the paragraph below. (not: below paragraph!) A portion of text can be below or above some other text.

A graphic image can be under(or beneath or underneath) another one though. That is location in space just like the attic above. Beneath and underneath are not preferred here. A painting can be hung on a wall in the same way: under,beneath,underneath or below another painting.

I think I explained this pretty thoroughly. Someone may come up with some detail I missed. Everything is possible.

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