Alcohol, weed, marijuana, ... etc. All those things that can make one high. Is there a word in English that encompasses all of them?
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"Intoxicant" covers all of your examples. It has a root in "toxic", poisonous. Intoxicant is commonly used in legal parlance.
"Drug" is commonly used for all of your examples except alcohol, although alcohol is also a drug and alcohol can be used as a medicine.
"Addictive substances" also fits, although that's two words.
Cheers for recognising that alcohol can also cause a high. That use has become less frequent since the 1960s. The Kingston Trio's song, "Scotch and Soda" has the lyric, "Baby, do I feel high, oh me, oh my" for both the alcohol-induced high and the emotionally-based high.