I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that will also be cited as coming from the same source, it is necessary or preferable to include two endnote citations, or only one. The text is as follows:

In the 1990s, Trump engaged in rhetoric about Native Americans to launch his own private “aggressive war on the expanding Native American casino industry, which posed a threat to his gambling empire.” Trump covertly invested $1 million dollars of his own money to run ads that insinuated that Native Americans provided a haven for organized crime, that reservations were filled with criminals, and that dark-skinned Natives were fake Indians.

Would it be appropriate to only have an endnote citation after "Indians," or would it be more appropriate to have two, one after the quote and the other after "Indians," with the citation after Indians being "Ibid."?

Thank you in advance for your help.

  • 1
    I find it strange that you are asking this question if you are actually using The Chicago Manual of Style. I'm quite sure that the answer to this question is in the style guide. Are you saying that it provides no guidance for this situation? Aug 24, 2018 at 3:03
  • Believe it or not, yes. I tried to find an answer and could not. That, or I'm simply misunderstanding the guidance it does provide. Trust me, I'm confused as well, which is why I came here.
    – Kalleo
    Aug 25, 2018 at 15:39
  • Thanks for clarifying. I think I finally came up with a comprehensive answer. Aug 25, 2018 at 16:20

1 Answer 1


From The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), 15.27, on the use of Author-Date references:

When the same page (or page range) in the same source is cited more than once in one paragraph, the parenthetical citation can be placed after the last reference or at the end of the paragraph (but preceding the final period). When referring to different pages in the same source, however, include a full parenthetical citation at the first reference; subsequent citations need only include page numbers.

So, if your quotation and source of paraphrasing both come from the same page or page range, you only need to provide a single citation. In your specific example, since the final reference is at the end of the sentence anyway, there is only one location for it: between Indians and the period.

But Chicago does provide an example of how to do this if the quotations come from different page numbers:

Complexion figures prominently in Morgan’s descriptions. When Jasper compliments his mother’s choice of car (a twelve-cylinder Mediterranean roadster with leather and wood-grained interior), “his cheeks blotch indignantly, painted by jealousy and rage” (Chaston 2000, 47). On the other hand, his mother’s mask never changes, her “even-tanned good looks” (56), “burnished visage” (101), and “air-brushed confidence” (211) providing the foil to the drama in her midst.

When using endnote numbers, I would think the same logic applies to the overall method of citation.

Use a single endnote number at the end if you would use only a single Author-Date reference; otherwise, use multiple endnote numbers with each pointing to a different entry.

One exception with the endnote number, however, is that it should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

From Chicago 14.26:

A note number should generally be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause. The number normally follows a quotation (whether it is run in to the text or set as an extract). Relative to other punctuation, the number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes.

  • Thank you so much for your help, Jason! I had dug through 13 on Quotations and 14 on Notes, but hadn't thought to dig as deeply in 15. As is probably obvious, this is my first experience being in a situation having to strictly adhere to the Chicago Manual. That definitely clarifies things. Greatly appreciated.
    – Kalleo
    Aug 25, 2018 at 16:44
  • @Kalleo Further to your question (and not directly relevant to my answer), I just remembered that Chicago discourages the use of Ibid. (see 14.34). As with Op. cit. (now actually disallowed—see 14.36), you should instead use a shortened citation. Aug 25, 2018 at 17:44

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