I have always been intrigued by the word usage in the title of this Bob Dylan song. Wikipedia mentions that the song was influenced by Irish and Scottish ballads:

Dylan recalled writing the song as a deliberate attempt to create an anthem of change for the moment. In 1985, he told Cameron Crowe: "This was definitely a song with a purpose. It was influenced of course by the Irish and Scottish ballads ...'Come All Ye Bold Highway Men', 'Come All Ye Tender Hearted Maidens'. I wanted to write a big song, with short concise verses that piled up on each other in a hypnotic way. The civil rights movement and the folk music movement were pretty close for a while and allied together at that time.

  • Is there a dialect where the form a-<gerund> is common? e.g. a-cooking, a-cleaning, etc.
  • If so, in what context would you use the form a-<gerund>?
  • Great examples. I missed the example from the Australian folk song Waltzing Matilda. I learned about that song in 7th grade here in the U.S.
    – Jaime Soto
    Commented Nov 1, 2010 at 17:50
  • I guess I must reply that I have also heard that song before :) cindi, do you have more common examples?
    – Jaime Soto
    Commented Nov 1, 2010 at 21:20
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    John Brown's body lies a-mold'ring in the grave.
    – GEdgar
    Commented Aug 28, 2011 at 17:10

5 Answers 5


The a- prefix is a reduction of Old English an/on, meaning on, used to express progressive aspect.

English used to have more of a distinction between present simple and present progressive; what we now say as “the times are changing” was expressed in Old English as “the times change”. In order to emphasise the progressive aspect (the times are currently in the process of changing), you would have said “the times are on the change”. I believe this is related to some set phrases such as “on the run”.

The usage is still current in in Dutch as aan het (“Ik ben aan het lopen” = “I’m walking”). In English it’s now used almost exclusively in poetry—normally music, and folk music at that—since it provides a convenient way to fill out a syllable and tweak the stress pattern of the sentence. I don’t know of any English dialects that have it in everyday speech.

  • out of curiosity, what's the German usage?
    – Claudiu
    Commented Nov 1, 2010 at 20:56
  • Also, are there any Frisian speakers that can give us examples in language?
    – Jaime Soto
    Commented Nov 1, 2010 at 21:54
  • 1
    Ver- is just a prefix, veranderen being the infinitive. Aan het veranderen is the present continuous, the German equivalent being am Verändern. The ver- has nothing to do with ge-, in fact the former "overrides" the latter, i.e. verbs with the prefix ver- never take a ge- to build a participle. Observe: änderngeändert, abändernabgeändert, umändernumgeändert, but verändernverändert.
    – RegDwigнt
    Commented Nov 2, 2010 at 9:45
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    @JonPurdy "Ich war König gemacht" isn't the correct translation of "I was made kind", you have to say "Ich wurde König gemacht". "War" (was) is the past tense of "sein" (to be), not the past tense of "werden" (to become). The general form of a sentence in the past tense and passive voice in german is "<Subject> wurde(n) <past participle>".
    – fgp
    Commented Jan 21, 2015 at 2:27
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    @JonPurdy BTW, mondern standard german doesn't have a form like "Ik ben aan het lopen", but something like this is common in northern germany (unsurprisingly, given the proximity to the netherlands). People there would e.g. say "Ich bin am laufen" to express "I am (currently) running". Funnily enough, the literal translation of "Ich bin am laufen" is "I am on the run", although it means something different - "Ich bin am laufen" doesn't indicate that you're fleeing from somethin, but just that you're currently running.
    – fgp
    Commented Jan 21, 2015 at 2:31

It is not true that English doesn't have any widely spoken dialects that use this.

Further, you leave out a big part of the story: "A-" before a verb was a prefix quite common in 16th C. English. It is still, today, quite common in Appalachian English, in the US, which is where Dylan no doubt took his influence.

It can mean "engaged in", as in "He's a-runnin! And fast!", or "She's a-birth, and there's no point in hoping she'll not."

It can also mean "motion to, into", as in "I'm going a-long", "I'm going a-bout", "I'm going a-round", "I'm going a-breast".

Being a colloquialism, its usage is largely regional, and so hasn't gotten enough attention to register on my personal "research radar" -- I, having lived in/come from Appalachia, find it rather intuitive. But my linguistic skills aren't sharp enough to describe precisely how the usage might work, unfortunately.

This is the sort of thing that, if you want to know how it's used, you've got to move to the place where it's spoken and hear it in speech for yourself.

  • 2
    +1 for the examples of along, about, around, and abreast -- I hadn't thought of a- as being a prefix in those before.
    – grautur
    Commented Aug 29, 2011 at 1:19
  • Hmm, but how does "He's running" differ in meaning from "He's a-runnin"? I've always assumed the "a-" prefix on a verb was just a way to add a syllable for poetic meter; I don't see how it conveys any actual semantic meaning in English.
    – Jay
    Commented Nov 28, 2011 at 18:51
  • @Jay I think it must have been changed from "He's a-run" to "He's a-running." Commented Dec 13, 2011 at 11:33
  • 1
    As @TomLightfoot said in his answer, to me the difference is progressive action that is happening now (a-comin') (or is immanent) versus possibly future action (comin'). He's coming does not necessarily mean that he is now in the process of coming. He's a-coming does mean that: He's a-comin' right now, and he'll be here any minute - better get ready!
    – Drew
    Commented Jan 5, 2017 at 4:46

I grew up in East Tennessee, and there the 'a-' prefix before the present participle (never the gerund) was in common use and still is in limited use, although now mostly by older people. I'm acomin', Hit's arainin' hard, He's a runnin' for it - all those and many more were common. [The Hit's is not a typo - in some positions, 'hit' was used instead of 'it.' Don't remember all the local ground rules, but as an initial word in a sentence, 'hit' was common.

One phrase that was often heard was 'I'm afixin(g) to,' used instead of 'I'm going to.' There was a shade of meaning difference there.

I'm goin' to go to Jonesborough = I will go to Jonesborough in the future. I'm afixin' to go to Jonesborough = I am preparing at this minute to go to Jonesborough in the immediate future.


This phenomenon has been studied and observed mostly in predominantly white speech communities speaking Southern American White English in Alabama, West Virginia and east Tennessee; it is unclear if it is used by speakers of other ethnicities. A-prefixing has also been observed in Scotland, Ireland and parts of England. Some argue that a-prefixing in Appalachian English originated from the variety spoken by settlers from southern England. In Appalachian English, a-prefixing is used by speakers of all ages. However, in some other dialects, such as Ozark English, the phenomenon is not used by younger individuals.

As for the purpose of a-prefixing, some have suggested that it could be a "stylistic indicator of vernacular style". They have also proposed that a-prefixing has a "stylistic function of intensity". Historically, the prefix has been said to derive from the loss of the -n in the preposition on used in Early Middle English.

In the example listed above in the question, the -ing suffix indicates that the verb is in the progressive aspect (describing a continuous action). This is the most common context in which a-prefixing is seen. It also tends to occur mostly with verbs which begin in a stressed syllable, although this is not the case in all varieties of English. A-prefixing is actually incompatible with nominal forms such as gerunds (nouns formed with the -ing suffix), as in I enjoy a-swimming. It is also incompatible with adjectives ending in -ing and objects of prepositions (except the second verb of a coordinated prepositional phrase). Additionally a-prefixing cannot occur with verbs beginning in vowels, which is probably one reason (of many) that Bob Dylan didn’t call the song The times they are a-altering, which would be an unnatural use of a-prefixing.

  • 1
    Interesting. The Irish language has a continuous tense with 'ag': eg. ag dul ar scoil (going to school), so it would be easy enough to imagining the native Irish speakers who had to speak English hanging on to this.
    – S Conroy
    Commented Jul 27, 2018 at 17:41

Another possible explanation is in terms of epenthesis: roughly, the insertion of a new sound as part of a process of phonetic change.

Here's a speculative hypothesis of how this may have come about in the kind of example you're talking about... Consider the examples he's going, she's changing, he's running.

The phoneme immediately before the verb in all these cases is a [z].

Now, consider that sometimes the end of one syllable ends up actually being pronounced as the first element of the following syllable. For instance, many Canadian and British speakers pronounce the phrase "none at all" in a way that others technically hear as "none a tall".

If a similar phenomenon were going on with the examples above, we might have phonetic breaks occurring before the [z] in such a way that the consonantal clusters [zg], [ztʃ], and [zr] would be formed for he's going, she's changing, he's running.

But those clusters don't occur in English at the start of freestanding words. So to prevent that from happenings, speakers might insert an [a] (actually more of a schwa if you think about it).

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