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I found two adverbs, between which indefinite article, in TVTRopes site:

  • Upon reading it, the host concludes that it's actually a really old joke that everyone knows.

Is it grammatical to use two adverbs in the way used above? I think, it should have been like this:

  • Upon reading it, the host concludes that it's actually a old joke that everyone knows.

Or, like this one:

  • Upon reading it, the host concludes that it's really a old joke that everyone knows.

I also found the same usage of adverbs, barring indefinite article in Bustle site:

  • Here are four zodiac signs that seem tough on the outside, but actually really sensitive, according to astrologers.
  • "Is it grammatical to use two adverbs in the way used above?" Why do you think not? – Kris Aug 2 '18 at 12:32
  • 2
    The Q is based on a misconception. – Kris Aug 2 '18 at 12:32
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Is it grammatical to use two adverbs in the way used above?

Yes, it is absolutely grammatical.

Your confusion seems to come from the idea that both adverbs modify the same thing, but they do not.

Really modifies the adjective old, as in

It is a really old joke.

Actually, however, modifies the verb is, as in

It actually is an old joke.

The fact that the verb and the adjective are inverted (which is fine, it happens a lot) just has as an effect that both adverbs end up closer to one another, but they still do not modify the same part of the sentence. If the adverb actually would modify a really old joke, it would end up after the article:

It is an actually really old joke.

This would be grammatical, but it doesn't sound very natural.

Your proposed alternative changes the meaning of the sentence:

Upon reading it, the host concludes that it's really a old joke that everyone knows.

In this case, really modifies the verb is, as in

Upon reading it, the host concludes that it really is an old joke that everyone knows.

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