I have just read an article, which has following sentence:
The power failed repeatedly throughout the day, adding to the chaos
Such examples continue to confuse me. It seems to be describing action/state of frequent power failure, so it must be acting as an adverb. This website explains that participial phrases act as adverbs where there is a cause-and-effect relationship between a dependent and an independent clause. This seems appropriate explanation for the sentence I shared.
My question is how one can form unreduced version of such participial phrases. For the above sentence, I can think of one possible version of its full form:
The power failed repeatedly throughout the day, which added to the chaos.
Based on shortening rules, we can delete 'which' and convert 'added' into 'adding'. But, as far as I know, adjective not adverb clauses start with 'which'. So, above version of full-sentence may be incorrect.
So, I would like to know:
- How can one tell if participial phrase is acting as an adjective or adverb?
- For such confusing phrases, how can one full-form of sentence?