10

I couldn't find many examples of apud and chez as prepositions; I just found one description on Wiktionary:

apud 1. Used in scholarly works to cite a reference at second hand.

  • Jones apud Smith means that the original source is Jones, but that the author is relying on Smith for that reference.

More shockingly, I found nine meanings of apud on Word Hippo site, i.e. among, at, before, amongst, about, beside, near, in the presence of.

The next word is chez, meaning "at the home of." Again from Wiktionary:

  • 2008 February 28, Lisa Forest, “Mind the gap: Empty house, empty nest, empty fridge”, in The Telegraph:

Even if I say so myself, Christmas chez the Forests is quite a heart-warming affair. For Ben, growing up, it was pure magic – a log fire in the grate, ...

Also, are these two words not used in English, but in Greek, Latin, or French? I found apud and chez in a Wikipedia article with a list of English prepositions.

  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat. – tchrist Jul 28 '18 at 23:39
  • How many answers does one need? lol @james – AmE speaker Jul 29 '18 at 11:45
  • @James Wolpert - what part of the question still needs more attention? – Gio Jul 29 '18 at 13:46
  • @Gio, I have added more research in my body of question; I said: "More shockingly, I found nine meanings of apud on Word Hippo site, i.e. among, at, before, amongst, about, beside, near, in the presence of." – Ahmed Jul 29 '18 at 15:14
  • @user, please read my comment above. – Ahmed Jul 29 '18 at 15:16
21

Regarding apud, I would advise against using such an obscure term. Unless it is common in the specific publication you are writing for.

Chicago Manual of Style:

Q. When can we use apud in a note?

A. Apud (Latin for “at,” “beside,” “within”) precedes the name of an author or title to indicate a source. It is used like the French word chez to mean “in the works of” or “according to”: apud Homer. It’s appropriate for those occasions when you just want to impress classics teachers or elderly readers and it doesn’t really matter whether anyone else understands.

Publications' style guides may provide rules on how one should cite an indirect reference. For example: How to Cite a Reference Within a Reference in APA Format


[Chez was added to the question after I posted the above]

I think chez would be widely understood by (native) English speakers even if they wouldn't use it often. According to Collins Dictionary:

Used Occasionally. chez is one of the 30000 most commonly used words in the Collins dictionary

With a nice little graph showing an odd peak in the mid 1700s.

Their definition is:

  1. at the home of

  2. with, among, or in the manner of

Example: London is busy letting its hair down but all is obviously not well chez Belmont. Edward Docx THE CALLIGRAPHER (2003)

It can seem pretentious and so is sometimes used for humorous effect or ironically.

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    You might want to clarify that this refers to apud, not chez. (And I agree about its obscurity; I edited a scholarly journal for classicists for almost a decade and never saw it used in a single article.) – 1006a Jul 25 '18 at 13:04
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    @1006a That’s quite surprising to me! I’ve seen it used dozens of times in journal articles, though admittedly ones aimed at historical/comparative linguists rather than classicists as such. Still, a fair amount of overlap between the two. I’ve always seen it as a perfectly common word to use in scholarly articles. – Janus Bahs Jacquet Jul 25 '18 at 19:29
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    @JanusBahsJacquet Perhaps it's a difference in sources? My journal is specifically focused on pedagogy, so the sources cited are mostly modern—I would guess that would mean less need for apud (since the original sources are usually extant) but also perhaps the Latin just looks more natural when the sources cited are also in ancient languages? My "day job" is in the social sciences, and I'd call apud rare-to-nonexistent there (even in law, which typically loves Latin). – 1006a Jul 25 '18 at 19:49
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    @JanusBahsJacquet Well, our house style was based on MLA, which specifies "qtd. in", so perhaps our authors were aware of that (though judging by other citation...issues I wouldn't have thought they were all looking up the specifications while writing). In general, of course, "go with your publication's preferred style" is usually the answer for this kind of thing. – 1006a Jul 25 '18 at 20:13
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    @lly Good idea! – user184130 Aug 1 '18 at 9:14
14

Note that, to answer your question, we cannot define the obscurity of apud, as it itself seems unimportant to be defined here.

And, we shouldn't say that apud has become an English word. Apud is simply a Latin word that is surrounded by the words of English. Seeing that this word is defined in Latin Dictionary, not in Cambridge, M. Webster or Oxford Dictionary, the Latin Dictionary gives its meaning: next to or at.

However, chez has been defined in various English dictionaries. Merriam Webster defines it as under:

at or in the home or business place of

Origin and Etymology:

French, from Latin casa cottage

First known use:

1940

Chez has also been defined in Urban Dictionary, English Oxford Living Dictionaries and Collins Dictionary.

Usage:

  1. They had had a superb party chez John yesterday. [=they had had a superb party at the house of John yesterday.

  2. We live chez my best friend. [=we live at the house of my best friend]

To cap it all, we cannot compare apud with chez and chez with apud, as its meaning is somehow not interchangeable, and they differ drastically in their origin.

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    @1006a, I did it, as you said. Thanks for this advice. – James Wolpert Jul 26 '18 at 4:45
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    @JamesWolpert I really thought it was a cool, probably a little archaic usage, you could have fooled me! – Josh Rumbut Jul 26 '18 at 17:02
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    @JoshRumbut, I just related it to bullfighting. Interestingly, in bullfighting, cape as a verb means to taunt (the bull) by flourishing a cape. See here: spanish-fiestas.com/culture/bullfighting-history – James Wolpert Jul 27 '18 at 9:28
7

Chez is a French word meaning 'at the home of'. I believe 'apud' means the same in Latin. There is no single word with the same meaning in English, so we have to use phrases like 'at our house' or 'at the Smiths' home'. English speakers familiar with the French word sometimes use it in English to express the idea in one word.

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    Apud can mean the same as chez, but its use in Latin is much more extensive, meaning “near” or “next to”, see Lewis and Short – egreg Jul 25 '18 at 17:18
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    Where at can take a non-pronominal possessive (“Didn’t I see you over at Mary’s?”, never “Didn’t I see you over at ✽hers?”), chez always takes an unmarked noun (“Didn’t I see you chez Mary?“) not a possessive form. – tchrist Jul 25 '18 at 18:14
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    @egreg, while it is true that apud in Latin has a wide range of uses (some of which overlap the uses of chez in French), in English contexts, it is used only for the very narrow purpose outlined in a couple of other answers. – jsw29 Jul 25 '18 at 19:13
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    @tchrist What’s wrong with “Didn’t I see you over at hers?”? At is perfectly happy to take pronominal possessives to me (“She stayed at ours for a while”, “D’you wanna come round to mine?”, etc.). Did you mean to say that where at always takes a possessive, chez never does? – Janus Bahs Jacquet Jul 25 '18 at 19:34
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    @JanusBahsJacquet perhaps it's regional. To me as a native Australian speaker, the other two would sound equally confusing or weird if they weren't preceded by a previous reference to someone else's place, home, city etc. – Chappo Jul 26 '18 at 7:24
6
+100

Apud is not used extensively enough in English to be considered an English word. For instance, it is not included in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) as a lemma, that is as

a form of a word that appears as an entry in a dictionary and is used to represent all the other possible forms (Cambridge dictionary, my emphasis)

The 2nd edition of the OED contains "171,476 words in current use, and 47,156 obsolete words" (OED site).

Apud is also not included in most professionally compiled dictionaries of English. For instance, OneLook shows no examples of such dictionaries containing the word. And the resources you have cited in your question are also not professionally compiled dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster, Oxford, American Heritage, Collins, Websters, but not wiktionary). Others have stated that apud is used in formal works to mean by means of, or through; this is an extremely specialized usage: not enough, really to make it an "English word." Thus any definitions of it come from its use in native Latin.

The OED does contain a centuries old, obsolete English preposition/adverb called anent, used as far back as the year 1000, or the time of Old English. The reason I mention this is because for this English (but obsolete) word, the OED compares its various meanings with those of both apud and chez (and even the German neben), as in

In the company of, with, among, beside, by (Latin apud, French chez, German neben)

also

With (figuratively), according to the way or manner of (Latin apud)

also

On a level with in position, rank, or value; equal to, on a par with

also

In a line with, side by side with, in company with, beside

I am quoting definitions of the obsolete English word anent to show that such prepositions/adverbs can have several associated meanings (and also because I had never heard of it before and it seems a nifty word). I hope this helps explain the added concern in your question expressed by "More shockingly, I found nine meanings of apud on Word Hippo site, i.e. among, at, before, amongst, about, beside, near, in the presence of." Such words, whether in English or other languages such as Latin can indeed have a host of meanings.

But again, it is important to distinguish between professionally compiled dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster, Oxford, American Heritage, Collins, Websters, but not wiktionary) that deal with English words and sources that might list words that are not usually considered to be English words, such as apud.

Take-home message:

Despite the presence of apud in WordHippo, it is not an English word, and the multiple meanings there are really meanings that it has in Latin, not in English. 99% of English speakers have never heard of the word.

On the other hand...

Chez, as can be seen by the definition of ament, is one French equivalent of the Latin apud, with the difference that chez, like other borrowed words such as gratis, rodeo and lasso, has been used so often by native English speakers (in this case to mean "at the house or home of" (OED)) that it is considered an English word, and it appears as a lemma in the OED and several other good English dictionaries. See OneLook, for example. There you will find definitions in Merriam-Webster, Oxford, American Heritage, Collins, Websters, all of which are what I mean by professionally compiled dictionaries. Wiktionary is not included in that category and I highly, strongly suggest you do not rely on it; in fact, I suggest you as a learner don't use it.

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    Surely “lemma” need no longer be set in italics after nigh onto five centuries of use! – tchrist Jul 29 '18 at 19:36
  • @user, very helpful answer of you. – Ahmed Jul 30 '18 at 4:05
  • @user, can we regard apud and chez as loan-words? – Ahmed Aug 1 '18 at 4:31
  • @IqbalAhmedSiyal You could but he's saying that so far 'apud' isn't. It's simply Latin that is being used as shorthand by some people within English. 'Chez', on the other hand, has become an actual loanword/borrowing because of its repeated use within English. (All the same, I still see it treated as foreign and often see it set in italics, the way user is mistakenly treating lemma.) – lly Aug 1 '18 at 8:53
  • I italicized, and even defined, lemma because that's what good writers often do when introducing a term that they think their audience might not be familiar with; it has nothing to do with it (lemma) being a "foreign" word. Granted, I also italicized it the second time I used it, but that was for the same reason; I have unitalicized my second use of it to keep the peanut gallery happy. – AmE speaker Aug 1 '18 at 19:42
4

From this blog

apud – (do latim junto a; in; Close of) cited by, as, second - Indicates the source of an indirect quotation.

To cite an author – the researcher whose work had NO access – what is stated in a book to which the researcher HAD access, It is used to reference apud. Ex:

(ANDERSON, 1981 apud ARÉVALO, 1997, p. 73)

In this example, by noting the word apud, soon we found that the author had no access to the director of the Anderson work, 1981. However, We had access to it through the work written by Arévalo, 1997. See more two examples:

Studies Zapeda (apud MELO, 1995, p. 5) show […]

BUTERA apud MONTEIRO, Washington de Barros. Course civil law: inheritance law. 30. and. Sao Paulo: Hail, 1995, in. 6, p. 80.

It is recommended not really use the word apud throughout their work, restricting its use only to situations involving works hard to reach, eg: texts difficult to understand languages, rare books and antique items.

OBS: The phrase cited is the one that can be used in the text and notes. The remaining, only notes.

Here's a further explanation from Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary

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    Honestly, even if I had known the word apud before seeing this question, I would most likely have written my citations as "Smith, 1945, as cited in Jones, 1953", and noted that Smith was not directly available to me. – Jeff Zeitlin Jul 25 '18 at 13:12
  • @JeffZeitlin, I appreciate your comment here. – Ahmed Jul 25 '18 at 14:45
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    Is this just quoting a blog, of questionable provenance? – Mitch Jul 25 '18 at 20:40
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    The English usage (and formatting) in the quoted text is very stilted and difficult to understand; it would appear that the author of the blog is not a native English speaker. – V2Blast Jul 25 '18 at 21:25
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    Entirely correct. This is a typical usage of the word apud in the classics studies, where I see it often to mean "as quoted in". But I've never seen it used elsewhere. – user173639 Jul 26 '18 at 9:41
-4

Apud and Chez do not belong to English... When you use it, you are speaking informal language.

  • 4
    Au contraire... the word apud is not used in informal language, but in scholarly works only. And I would argue that any word that is used in a language belongs to it. Even if it originates from another language. – Oliver Mason Jul 26 '18 at 13:03
  • @OliverMason I think it's a spelling mistake. The OP probably wanted to say "you are speaking in formal language" – Mari-Lou A Jul 29 '18 at 8:13

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