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In the following sentence: This project aims to help the visually impaired people to practice their life normally.

I argue that the "the" is unnecessary in the sentence because saying "This project aims to help visually impaired people to practice their life normally" is sufficient, also I don't see any reason to add more identification to "visually impaired people".

However, we can say "This project aims to help the visually impaired to practice their life normally." (dropped "people") because "visually impaired" needs more identification and "the" does that job.

Other friend is arguing that in the first example we need "the" and it's wrong to drop it.

Which one is the correct usage?

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Both of these mean the essentially same thing:

This project aims to help visually impaired people to practice their life normally.

This project aims to help the visually impaired to practice their life normally.

These mean that the audience of the project is visually impaired people in general.

This sentence means something different:

This project aims to help the visually impaired people to practice their life normally.

This sentence would be used if you've previously mentioned some particular group of people. It's saying that the audience of the project is all of the people in that group who are visually impaired.

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Let's get rid of some of the excess here. Notice that your phrase "the visually impaired people" is a phrase to describe a noun and could easily be swapped with any noun and be grammatical:

This project aims to help potatoes practice their life normally.

So let's look at the phrase you have. You're talking about people, but what kind of people are they? Visually impaired people. "Visually impaired" here is an adjective phrase to describe the people. And which visually impaired people? The visually impaired people.

So are you good to drop "the?" Absolutely! But you lose some descriptiveness if you're trying to talk about specific visually impaired people.

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