In the sentence
Steve went unnoticed by the crowd.
Does unnoticed modify went, making it an adverb or Steve, making it an adjective?
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I don't think "unnoticed" is ever an adverb—certainly not in the sentence "Steve went unnoticed by the crowd." It is an adjective.
Verbs can take adjectives as complements: the most obvious examples are copular verbs like "be" and "become". We say things like "Steve was unnoticed" or "Steve became unhappy" where "unnoticed" and "unhappy" are adjectives that act as complements to "was" and "became". Not everything that "modifies" or goes with a verb is an adverb (for comparison, a transitive verb can take a noun phrase as a direct object: that obviously doesn't make the noun phrase an adverb!).