I've wondered if there are many synonyms for chieftain because I can't think of any.
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I checked around for descriptions of the duties for such an Icelandic chieftain. I found the duties of the office to be rather nebulous, but seemed to fit within the English words - leader, governor, and priest. Or, to put it another way "One who is in charge of" various duties that encompassed civic, legal, and spiritual responsibilities. Possibly the original word "chieftain", which is from the English word "captain", expresses this vague leadership role the best.