Perhaps we should go back to the meaning of derivation, or its derivation (Romance de-ripare or de-rivare, ultimately Latin de + rivus, "going down the river").
Asking for an antonym is asking: "where does the object come from"? From all these answers, it is obvious that there could be as many legimate antonyms for "derived" or "derivative" as there are different possible starting points in a derivation processes (origin, underlying, original, template, mould, integral, etc.).
If we want a general, blanket concept, we might have to look in the direction... of upstream (up + stream):
Being or moving closer to the source of a stream; in the direction
opposite to that of the current: upstream traffic; an upstream dam (American Heritage)
It could be the upstream, to coin a term.
Note that if we go all the way back to the origin point of a stream, the fountainhead is the source (in an etymological sense, from Latin surgere "to spring").
The source point (for the stream) or the starting point ("a place to start", Merriam-Webster) might also answer the question, though not as expressive as all the specialized alternatives already proposed. Yet the a source point might no be general enough: an object might be derived from several others. In which case you might have to deal with components, elements, atoms, raw materials etc. At which point we might get into mathematical or technical jargon, probably too abstract for daily conversation (a source set)?