Especially since you're Mexican, you'll find the link given by @sumelic useful in understanding the origins of words and some background to it.
As for usage, you'll need to pick it up as you go. The application of words has changed over time and some older terms are less used today.
Take the word Enter. It does not always mean come.
So here are some examples that I hope you'll find useful. This is not a full list but I hope it will help.
Enter = go into some place. So in this context, the terms you may use are:
- get in : get in the car
- step in : step into the ICU
- go in : go into the classroom...
- hop in/on : hop on and let's go...
- come on in : used to welcome someone or call them in.
- log in/on : used with computers and similar devices. Eg: I can't seem to log in to the system or he claims there's an error while logging in...
Enter = To record
- record : did you record the transaction in the ledger?
- write down : did you write down the minutes in the log book?
- key in / type : You should key in those figures before noon
- lodge : You should lodge a complaint about that neighbour*.
- log into/onto : after you log the temperature into the master sheet
Enter = To accept into
- accept into : We accept you into our faculty
- admit : The patient was admitted yesterday
- enroll : The student was enrolled last week
- receive : we receive you into our university with open arms
Enter = Put into
- put into : Did you put the marbles into the bottle?
- plug into/onto : before you plug the device into the socket...
- push into : now push the valve into the base
- fix : fix the chip onto the main-board